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الفوائد الصحية لتناول المكسرات Health Benefits of Nuts Consumption







المكسرات (المكسرات والفول السوداني) هي أغذية كثيفة المغذيات مع مصفوفات معقدة غنية بالدهون غير المشبعة والمركبات الأخرى النشطة بيولوجيا: البروتين النباتي عالي الجودة والألياف والمعادن والتوكوفيرول والفيتوستيرول والمركبات الفينولية

(high-quality vegetable protein, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds).

بفضل تركيبتها الفريدة ، من المرجح أن تؤثر المكسرات بشكل مفيد على

النتائج الصحية. ربطت الدراسات الوبائية بين استهلاك الجوز وانخفاض معدل الإصابة بأمراض القلب التاجية وحصى المرارة في كلا الجنسين ومرض السكري لدى النساء. تشير الأدلة المحدودة أيضا إلى آثار مفيدة على ارتفاع ضغط الدم والسرطان والالتهابات. تظهر الدراسات التدخلية باستمرار أن تناول الجوز له تأثير على خفض الكوليسترول ، حتى في سياق النظم الغذائية الصحية ، وهناك أدلة ناشئة على الآثار المفيدة على الإجهاد التأكسدي والالتهاب وتفاعل الأوعية الدموية

(oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity)

. كما يبدو أن ضغط الدم والسمنة الحشوية ومتلازمة التمثيل الغذائي

(Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome)

تتأثر بشكل إيجابي باستهلاك الجوز. وبالتالي فمن الواضح أن المكسرات لها تأثير مفيد على العديد من عوامل الخطر القلبية الوعائية. على عكس التوقعات ، تشير الدراسات الوبائية والتجارب السريرية إلى أن استهلاك الجوز المنتظم من غير المرجح أن يساهم في السمنة وقد يساعد في إنقاص الوزن. تقتصر مخاوف السلامة على الحدوث غير المتكرر لحساسية الجوز عند الأطفال. في الختام ، المكسرات هي أطعمة غنية بالمغذيات ذات فوائد واسعة النطاق للقلب والأوعية الدموية والتمثيل الغذائي ، والتي يمكن دمجها بسهولة في النظم الغذائية الصحية .

وفي هذا الصدد بيَّنت دراسة كبيرة أنَّ استهلاك المكسرات يترابط مع انخفاض معدل الوفيات وغيرها من الفوائد الصحية المهمة الأخرى وفيما يلي ملخص لهذه الدراسة.

Large study links nut consumption to reduced death rate

دراسة كبيرة تربط استهلاك المكسرات بانخفاض معدل الوفيات

قال علماء من معهد دانا فاربر للسرطان (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) ومستشفى بريغهام للنساء (Brigham and Women's Hospital)

وكلية هارفارد للصحة العامة (Harvard School of Public Health)

في أكبر دراسة من نوعها ، إنَّ الأشخاص الذين تناولوا حفنة من المكسرات (Nuts) يوميا كانوا أقل عرضة بنسبة 20 في المائة للوفاة لأي سبب خلال فترة 30 عاما مقارنة بأولئك الذين لم يستهلكوا المكسرات.

يحتوي تقريرهم ، الذي نُشر في مجلة نيو انكلاند الطبية (New England Journal of Medicine)، على المزيد من الأخبار الجيدة. فقد وُجد أن الأشخاص الذين يتناولون المكسرات بانتظام أكثر رشاقة من أولئك الذين لم يتناولوا المكسرات وهو اكتشاف يجب أن يخفف من القلق المنتشر من أن تناول الكثير من المكسرات سيؤدي إلى زيادة الوزن.

كما نظر التقرير في التأثير الوقائي على أسباب محددة للوفاة. فقد لاحظ الباحثون أيضا انخفاضا كبيرا (11 بالمائة) في خطر الوفاة من السرطان.

ولم يتمكن البحث تحديد ما إذا كان أي نوع أو أنواع معينة من المكسرات حاسمة للتأثير الوقائي. ومع ذلك ، كان الانخفاض في معدل الوفيات مماثلاً لكل من الفول السوداني و "المكسرات" - الجوز والبندق واللوز والجوز البرازيلي والمكاديميا والبقان والكاجو والفستق والصنوبر.

وجدت العديد من الدراسات السابقة ارتباطا بين زيادة استهلاك الجوز وانخفاض مخاطر الإصابة بأمراض مثل أمراض القلب والسكري النمط 2 وسرطان القولون وحصى المرارة والتهاب الرتج. كما تم ربط ارتفاع استهلاك المكسرات بانخفاض مستويات الكوليسترول في الدم والإجهاد التأكسدي والالتهابات والسمنة ومقاومة الأنسولين. ربطت بعض الدراسات الصغيرة بين زيادة المكسرات في النظام الغذائي وانخفاض معدل الوفيات الإجمالي في مجموعات سكانية محددة. لكن لم تبحث أي دراسات بحثية سابقة بمثل هذه التفاصيل في مستويات مختلفة من استهلاك الجوز وتأثيراتها على معدل الوفيات الإجمالي في عدد كبير من السكان تمت متابعته لأكثر من 30 عاما.

بالنسبة للبحث الجديد ، تمكن العلماء من الاستفادة من قواعد البيانات من دراستين جاريتين مشهورتين تقومان بجمع البيانات عن النظام الغذائي وعوامل نمط الحياة الأخرى والنتائج الصحية المختلفة. قدمت دراسة صحة الممرضات بيانات عن 76464 امرأة بين عامي 1980 و 2010 ، وأظهرت دراسة متابعة المهنيين الصحيين بيانات عن 42498 رجلاً من 1986 إلى 2010. وقام المشاركون في الدراسات بملء استبيانات غذائية مفصلة كل سنتين إلى أربع سنوات. مع كل استبيان غذائي ، طُلب من المشاركين تقدير عدد المرات التي تناولوا فيها المكسرات في حجم حصة مقدارها أونس واحد (1 أونس =28.3495231 جرام). علبة صغيرة نموذجية من الفول السوداني من آلة البيع تحتوي على أونس واحد.

تم استخدام طرق تحليل البيانات المتطورة لاستبعاد العوامل الأخرى التي قد تكون مسؤولة عن فائدة تخفيض الوفيات. على سبيل المثال ، وجد الباحثون أن الأفراد الذين تناولوا المزيد من المكسرات كانوا أخف وزنا وأقل عرضة للتدخين وأكثر ميل لممارسة الرياضة واستخدام مكملات الفيتامينات واستهلاك المزيد من الفاكهة والخضروات.

ومع ذلك ، كان التحليل قادرا على عزل العلاقة بين المكسرات والوفيات بشكل مستقل عن هذه العوامل الأخرى. في كل هذه التحليلات ، كلما أكل الناس المزيد من المكسرات ، قل احتمال موتهم خلال فترة المتابعة التي استمرت 30 عاما. أما أولئك الذين تناولوا المكسرات أقل من مرة في الأسبوع انخفض معدل الوفيات لديهم بنسبة 7٪. وفي حالة مرة واحدة في الأسبوع انخفض معدل الوفيات بنسبة 11٪ . وفي حالة مرتين إلى أربع مرات في الأسبوع كان الإنخفاض بنسبة 13٪ . وفي حالة من خمس إلى ست مرات في الأسبوع كان الإنخفاض بنسبة 15 في المائة . وفي حالة سبع مرات أو أكثر في الأسبوع كان الإنخفاض بنسبة 20 في المائة في معدل الوفيات.

ويعتقد المؤلفون أن هذه الدراسة الكبيرة لا يمكن أن تثبت بشكل قاطع السبب والنتيجة ومع ذلك فإن النتائج تتفق بشدة مع ثروة من البيانات القائمة على الملاحظة والتجارب السريرية لدعم الفوائد الصحية لاستهلاك الجوز على العديد من الأمراض المزمنة. في الواقع ، بناءً على دراسات سابقة خلصت إدارة الغذاء والدواء الأمريكية في عام 2003 إلى أن تناول 1.5 أُونس يوميا من معظم المكسرات "قد يقلل من خطر الإصابة بأمراض القلب".

The study is supported by National Institutes of Health grants UM1 CA167552, P01 CA87969, R01 HL60712, R01CA124908, P50 CA127003, and 1U54 CA155626-01, and a research grant from the International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research & Education Foundation.

JOURNAL

New England Journal of Medicine


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